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Virtual Nitrogen Oxide Sensor for Improved Emission Control in Natural Gas/Hydrogen Cogeneration Power Plants

Fichtner, Johannes; Gegner, Adrian; Ninow, Jan; Kapischke, Jörg (2023)

5th International Conference Business Meets Technology, Valencia 2024.
DOI: 10.4995/BMT2023.2023.16705

Open Access Peer Reviewed

This study demonstrates the need for novel gas engine control systems for com-
bined heat and power plants, also known as cogeneration power plants, connected to natural
gas grids. Hydrogen addition to natural gas grids in a range of up to 5% by volume is already
permitted throughout Europe. This offers the possibility to reduce carbon dioxide emissions
of end consumers connected to public natural gas grids and contributes to climate protec-
tion. However, conventional engine controls are not designed for natural gas/hydrogen mixture
operation. We tested fuels with up to 30% hydrogen by volume using a commercial six-cylinder
spark ignition engine, designed for natural gas or biogas operation in power plants. With engine
settings according to usual cogeneration operation, nitrogen oxide emissions increased expo-
nentially with increasing hydrogen amounts. We demonstrate that the usual approach of using
the lower heating value of the fuel mixture to regulate the engine is unable to accommodate the
hydrogen induced changes. For this reason, we developed a mathematical model to determine
the nitrogen oxide emissions based on boost pressure and power output. The idea behind this
novel approach is to regulate the engine based on emissions, regardless of the fuel gas. In this
work the approach for this virtual sensor is described and its performance demonstrated.


Hydrogen enriched natural gas as fuel for CHP units

Fichtner, Johannes; Gegner, Adrian; Ninow, Jan; Kapischke, Jörg (2023)

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.05.263

Peer Reviewed

This study investigates the potential benefits and drawbacks of adding hydrogen to natural
gas grids on stationary cogeneration plants. Fuel blended with up to 30% hydrogen by
volume was tested using a commercial six-cylinder spark ignition engine designed for pure
natural gas operation without modifications to the engine. In line with normal practice for
cogeneration plant engines, the power output, the lower heating value of the air/fuel
mixture, the ignition timing and the engine speed were held constant. Results show that
increasing hydrogen concentration led to an earlier peak cylinder pressure, indicating
significantly accelerated combustion. As a result, peak pressures were up to 39% higher
than with natural gas and up to 10% of fuel burned before top dead center. Despite this,
thermal efficiency improved up to 6%. Cycle-by-cycle variation decreased by half, indi-
cating reduced misfires on account of hydrogen. However, nitrogen oxide emissions
increased exponentially with increasing hydrogen amounts. Our findings suggest that
hydrogen-enriched natural gas is a promising fuel for stationary cogeneration plants, but
modifications to engine control settings are necessary to ensure optimal performance and
compliance with nitrogen oxide emission regulations. These modifications might include
adjustments to the mixture control system and ignition timing.


Wasserstoff-Inselnetzwerk der Hochschule Ansbach

Schultheiß, Daniel; Jarosch, Dieter; Kapischke, Jörg (2022)

Green Efficient Technologies 2022, Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH, Nürnberg, ISSN 2752-2040.

Änderungen der Gaseigenschaften im Gasnetz und ihre Auswirkungen auf die motorische Verbrennung

Petsch, Roman; Kapischke, Jörg (2021)

gwf Gas + Energie (05).

Lubricants in Combined Heat and Power Units - Comparison of two Oils

Gröper, Mirko; Petsch, Roman; Kapischke, Jörg (2018)

Business Meets Technology. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of the University of Applied Sciences Ansbach 25th to 27th January 2018. Aachen: Shaker (campus_edition Hochschule Ansbach), S. 38-41.

Intelligente Biogasanlagen flexibel und effizient im Verbund

Gröper, Mirko; Bartsch, Anja; Kapischke, Jörg; von Blumenthal, Astrid...

Johannitag 2018. Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, 24.06.2018.

Development, construction and testing of a water electrolysis test cell with anion exchange membrane

Caidi , Mohammed Adib; Jarosch, Dieter; Kapischke, Jörg (2016)

iSEneC 2016 - Integration of Sustainable Energy Conference. Nürnberg Messe, 11.-12.07.2016.

Entwicklung und Test eines Wasserelektrolyseurs mit einer Anionenaustauschmembran

Caidi , Mohammed Adib; Jarosch, Dieter; Kapischke, Jörg (2016)

Ansbacher Kaleidoskop 2016. Aachen: Shaker Verlag (campus_edition Hochschule Ansbach), S. 103-110.

Neue Herausforderungen für Blockheizkraftwerke in der Power-to-Gas-Technologie

Eckert, Julia; Bößl, Franz-Josef; Kapischke, Jörg (2015)

gwf - Gas+Energie 156 (01-02), S. 56-63.

Prof. Dr. Jörg Kapischke

Hochschule Ansbach

Hochschule Ansbach - Fakultät Technik
Residenzstr. 8
91522 Ansbach

T 0981 4877-310